Dhori Virus

Dhori Virus belongs to the Thogotoviruses and that makes it a direct relative of the influenza viruses because all are part of the larger family of Orthomyxoviruses. The genus Togotoviruses has nine distinct members: Thogoto Virus, Dhori Virus, Araguari Virus, Batken Virus, Jos Virus, Upolu Virus, Aransas Bay Virus, Bourbon Virus and Sinu Virus.

Both Thogotovirusses and Influenza viruses share structural and genetic properties and thus must have a common ancestor.

The Dhori virus was first isolated from Hyalomma dromedarii ticks, collected from camels in Dhori, Gujarat State (India) in 1961[1]. In Europe, the virus has been isolated several times from Hyalomma marginatum and Hyalomma scupense. Hyalomma is a genus of hard ticks, occurring in southern Europe, South Asia and Africa. It occurs in various biotopes characterised by low humidity such as steppe, savannah and lightly wooded hill and valley biotopes.
[Hyalomma marginatum]
Antibodies of Dhori virus were also found in humans in Portugal in 1985[2] and a strain of the virus was also isolated from a hare that was living in the Volga River delta, in the Astrakhan region in 2001, which was the first isolation of a Thogoto virus from wild vertebrates[3].

A human infection with the Dhori virus will result in a febrile period of 2-4 days, headache, pain behind the eyes, myalgia, general weakness and a prolonged convalescence. The potential clinical importance of infection by this virus was shown when five laboratory workers were accidentally infected while working with the virus.

Dhori virus is very closely related to Batken virus[4].

[1] Anderson, Casals: Dhori virus, a new agent isolated from Hyalomma dromedarii in India in Indian Journal of Medical Research - 1973
[2] Filipe, Casals: Isolation of Dhori virus from Hyalomma marginatum ticks in Portugal in Intervirology - 1979
[3] L’vov et al: The isolation of Dhori viruses (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) from the hare (Lepus europaeus) and its ticks Hyalomma marginatum in the middle zone of the Volga delta, Astrakhan region, 2001 in Voprosy Virusologii - 2002
[4] Frese et al: Mx1 sensitivity: Batken virus is an orthomyxovirus closely related to Dhori virus in Journal of General Virology - 1997.

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